Category Archives: EMR

Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Practitioners

Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Practitioners

Organizations implementing EMR method:

Organization for Marine Conservation, Research and Awareness (OMCAR) http://www.omcar.org
OMCAR is implementing mangrove restoration using EMR near Pattukkottai, Tamil Nadu, India and they’re also are training other organizations in Tamil Nadu on the use of EMR.
OMCAR gave training to CReNIEO staff persons on EMR Nov.30, 2009.
German volunteer with CReNIEO gives his impressions on OMCAR’s mangrove restoration work on Youtube.
MAP-Asia Coordinator visits OMCAR EMR sites Nov. 2009.

Selected Mangrove Restoration Papers & References

Selected Mangrove Restoration Papers & References

The below list of references and publications is by no means exhaustive. If you come across an interesteing publication that is worth telling the world about, or if you are the author of such, please let us know and we will include it in the list, as well as post it (if available). If you find missing or broken links, please let us know!
Crewz, D. W., and R. R. Lewis. 1991. Evaluation of historical attempts to establish emergent vegetation in marine wetlands in Florida. Florida Sea Grant Technical Paper No.60. Florida Sea Grant College, Gainesville. 79 pp + append. (html)
http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/flsgp/flsgpt91001/flsgpt91001index.html
Erftemeijer, P. L. A., and R. R. Lewis III. 2000. Planting mangroves on intertidal mudflats: habitat restoration or habitat conversion? Pages 156-165 in Proceedings of the ECOTONE VIII Seminar “Enhancing Coastal Ecosystems Restoration for the 21st Century, Ranong, Thailand, 23-28 May 1999. Royal Forest Department of Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand.
Lewis, R. R. 1981. Economics and feasibility of mangrove restoration. Pp. 88-94 in Proceedings of the Coastal Ecosystems Workshop, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-80/59.
Lewis, R. R. 1982. Mangrove Forests. Ch. 8, pp. 153-172 in R. R Lewis (ed.), Creation and Restoration of Coastal Plant Communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 219pp. (pdf, 21p, 1.4MB)

Lewis, R. R. 1982. Low marshes, peninsular Florida. Ch. 7, pp. 147-152 in R. R Lewis (ed.), Creation and Restoration of Coastal Plant Communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 219pp. (pdf, 8p, 1.2MB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/Lewis_1982_Tidal_marshes_of_peninsular_Florida__2_.pdf
Lewis, R. R. 1983. Impact of oil spills on mangrove forests. Pp.171-183 in H. J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves. Tasks for Vegetation Science 8. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. 188 pp.
Lewis, R. R. 1990. Creation and restoration of coastal plain wetlands in Florida. Pp. 73-101 in J. A. Kusler and M. E. Kentula (eds.),Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Island Press, Washington, D.C. xxv + 595 pp. (pdf, 31p, 2.8mB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/Lewis_1990_Mangrove_Restoration_Florida.pdf
Lewis, R. R. 1990. Creation and restoration of coastal wetlands in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Pp.103-123 in J. A. Kusler and M. E. Kentula (eds.), Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Island Press, Washington, D.C. xxv + 595 pp. (pdf, 23p, 2.1MB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/Lewis_1990_Mangrove_Restoration_PR_and_VI.pdf
Lewis, R. R. 1990. Wetlands Restoration/Creation/Enhancement Terminology: Suggestions for Standardization Pp.417-422 in J. A. Kusler and M. E. Kentula (eds.), Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Island Press, Washington, D.C. xxv + 595 pp.
Lewis, R. R 1992. Coastal habitat restoration as a fishery management tool. Pp. 169-173 in R. H. Stroud (ed.), Stemming the Tide of Coastal Fish Habitat Loss. Proceedings of a Symposium on Conservation of Coastal Fish Habitat, Baltimore, Md., March 7-9, 1991. National Coalition for Marine Conservation, Inc., Savannah, GA. (pdf, 6p, 165KB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/Lewis_1992_Fish_habitat.pdf
Lewis, R. R. 1994. Enhancement, restoration and creation of coastal wetlands. Ch. 8 in D. M. Kent, ed., Applied Wetlands Science and Technology. Lewis Publishers, Inc. xii+388 pp. + append.
Lewis, R. R. 1999. Key concepts in successful ecological restoration of mangrove forests. Pages 12-32 in Proceedings of the TCE-Workshop No. II, Coastal Environmental Improvement in Mangrove/Wetland Ecosystems, 18-23 August 1998, Ranong, Thailand. Danish-SE Asian Collaboration in Tropical Coastal Ecosystems (TCE) Research and Training. NACA, P.O. Box 1040, Bangkok, Thailand 10903
Lewis, R. R. 2000. Don’t forget wetland habitat protection and restoration for Florida’s fisheries. National Wetlands Newsletter 22(6): 9-10 + 20.
Lewis, R. R. 2000. Ecologically based goal setting in mangrove forest and tidal marsh restoration in Florida. Ecological Engineering 15(3-4): 191-198. (pdf, 8p, 495KB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/Ecologically_based_goal_setting_in_mangrove_forest_and_tidal_marsh_restoration.pdf
Lewis, R.R. III. 2005. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecol. Eng. 24(4 SI): 403-418. (pdf, 16p, 555KB)
http://www.lewisenv.com/Ecol_Eng_Mangrove_Rest_Lewis_2005.pdf
Lewis, R.R. 2005. Mangroves, hurricanes and tsunamis. All About Wetlands 1(3):3-5+10
Lewis, R. R., P. Clark, W. K. Fehring, H.S. Greening, R. Johansson and R. T. Paul. 1998. The rehabilitation of the Tampa Bay estuary, Florida, USA, an example of successful integrated coastal management. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37 (8-12): 468-473.
Lewis, R. R., R. G. Gilmore, Jr., D. W. Crewz and W. E. Odum. 1985. Mangrove habitat and fishery resources of Florida. Pp. 281-336 in W. Seaman, Jr. (ed.), Florida Aquatic Habitat and Fishery Resources. Florida Chapter, American Fisheries Society, Kissimmee, Florida. 543 pp.
Lewis III, R. R., A. B. Hodgson, and G. S. Mauseth. 2005. Project facilitates the natural reseeding of mangrove forests (Florida). Ecological Restoration 23(4):276-77. (pdf, 2p, 126KB)
www.mangroverestoration.com/LEWISH_1.PDF
Lewis, R. R., J. A. Kusler and K. L. Erwin. 1995. Lessons learned from five decades of wetland restoration and creation in North America. Ecological Basis of Restoration of Wetlands in the Mediterranean Basin, University of La Rabida, (Huelva) Spain, 7-11 June 1993. Pages 107-122 in C. Montes, G. Oliver, F. Molina, and J. Cobos (eds.). Bases ecológicas para la Restauración de humedales en la Cuenca Mediterránea, Junta de Andalucía, Spain. 348 pp.
Lewis, R. R., and M. J. Marshall. 1998. Principles of successful restoration of shrimp aquaculture ponds back to mangrove forests. Page 327 in World Aquaculture Society Book of Abstracts, Aquaculture ‘98, Las Vegas, Nevada. (Abstract)
Lewis, R.R. III, M.J. Phillips, B. Clough and D.J. Macintosh. 2003. Thematic Review on Coastal Wetland Habitats and Shrimp Aquaculture. Report prepared under the World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. Work in Progress for Public Discussion. Published by the Consortium. 81 pp. (html)
http://www.enaca.org/modules/mydownloads/singlefile.php?cid=56&lid=157
Lewis, R. R., and W. Streever. 2000. Restoration of mangrove habitat. Tech Note ERDC TN-WRP-VN-RS-3.2. U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 7 p. (pdf, 7p, 630MB)
http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/wrtc/wrp/tnotes/vnrs3-2.pdf
Lewis Environmental Services, Inc. and Coastal Environmental Services, Inc. 1996. Setting priorities for Tampa Bay habitat protection and restoration: restoring the balance. Tech. Pub. # 09-95. Tampa Bay National Estuary Program, Tampa, Florida. 106 pp + append.
Mauseth, G.S., J. S. U-Donnelly and R. R. Lewis. 2001. Compensatory restoration of mangrove habitat following the Tampa Bay oil spill. Pages 761-767 in Proceedings of the 2001 International Oil Spill Conference, Volume 1, March 26-29, 2001, Tampa, Florida. USEPA, API, IPIECA, IMO, US Coast Guard. 771 pp.
Stevenson, N. J., R. R. Lewis and P. R. Burbridge. 1999. Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Pages 277-297 in “An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation”, W. J. Streever (Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 338 pp. (pdf, 21p, 1.85MB) www.mangroverestoration.com/Stevenson_et_al_1999_Disused_Shrimp_Ponds.pdf
Turner, R. E., and R. R. Lewis. 1997. Hydrologic restoration of coastal wetlands. Wetlands Ecol. Manage. 4(2):65-72. (pdf, 8p, 2.1MB)
http://www.mangroverestoration.com/hydrologic_restoraton_of_coasta_wetlands.pdf

Mangrove Restoration of Abandoned Shrimp Farms

Mangrove Restoration of Abandoned Shrimp Farms

Area Estimates

It is estimated that there are over 250,000 ha (617,500 acres) of abandoned shrimp ponds found in the mangrove forest zones of Asia and Latin America.
Robin Lewis derived the estimate from personal on-site visits and examination of both vertical aerial photography and satellite photography for Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, India, and Costa Rica.
The estimate is a very conservative figure, as 2 published papers report a total of 248,232 ha of abandoned shrimp aquaculture ponds without including estimates for Central and South America:

References

1. Stevenson, N. J., R. R. Lewis and P. R. Burbridge. 1999. Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Pages 277-297 in “An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation,” W. J. Streever (Ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 338 pp.
A total of 119,812 ha of abandoned ponds were reported in Thailand and the Philippines only (pages 278-280).
>> Download pdf (1.8 MB)
2. Lewis, R.R. III, M.J. Phillips, B. Clough and D.J. Macintosh. 2003. Thematic Review on Coastal Wetland Habitats and Shrimp Aquaculture. Report prepared under the World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. Published by the Consortium. 81 pp. (Contains 13 case studies as Annexes 1-13)
>> Download pdf (1.6 MB)
Case Study 10: Rehabilitation and management of shrimp ponds constructed in acid sulphate soils by J. Sammut and A. Hanafi (2002), reports in Table 1, p. 63, that there were 128,420 ha of abandoned shrimp aquaculture ponds in Indonesia.
>> Download Case Study 10 pdf (2.04 MB)
Adding these two subtotals together gives 248,232 ha.

Up-to-date Estimates Lacking

These numbers are 5-10 years old, and exclude accurate estimates for such countries as Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as all of Central and South America.
250,000 ha is therefore a conservative estimate for circa 2000.
As of 2007, estimates would be at least 2x that amount, or 500,000 ha.
MAP is aware of no further estimates of the area of abandoned ponds constructed in former mangroves, but if anyone comes across some numbers, please let us know.

Support Restoration of Abandoned Shrimp Ponds

MAP is demonstrating hydrological restoration, through the MAP EMR Method, as an alternative model for returning shrimp ponds to healthy mangrove forests and promotes the adoption of the MAP EMR Method as public policy by governments and NGOs alike.