Category Archives: emr post

emr post

EMR Method

MAP Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Method

Working alongside mangrove ecologists, local NGOs, and communities, we promote the MAP Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Method, an economical and efficient 6-Step approach to mangrove restoration which follows basic natural processes.

Hydrological Restoration

The MAP EMR Method prioritizes the restoration of the natural hydrology of disturbed areas. Deemphasizing capital and labor intensive direct hand planting, MAP applies a broader, less expensive, and more effective restorative approach.

Restoring an area’s natural hydrology will, in many cases, allow Nature to restore the mangroves via tidal ebbs and flows, transporting mangrove propagules (seeds) for the natural regeneration of a bio-diverse and healthy forest wetland.

Successful, Community-based, Small-scale


EMR greatly increases the overall success rate for naturally restoring large areas of degraded mangrove forests. Our efforts are unique in that they place the local community at center stage in the restoration and management process.

MAP supports small-scale efforts, in fact tiny, when compared to the huge programs supported by World Bank loans and government agencies. MAP has supported mangrove restoration efforts in Ecuador, Brazil, Guatemala, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Malaysia, and has actively rehabilitated 580 hectares of mangrove forests in Riau and North Sumatera, Indonesia, using the MAP EMR Method as part of post-tsunami recovery.
MAP EMR dig and training video(20 mb, 10 min) – Ban Talay Nok, Ranong Province on the north Andaman coast of Thailand.
Mangrove Rehab Photo Essay – N. Sumatera (pdf 3.62 MB)
Mangrove Rehab Photo Essay – Riau (pdf 3.74 MB)
Natural Revegetation of Abandoned Shrimp Pond Complex – Tiwoho, N. Sulawesi, 1993-2006 (pdf, 4.7MB)
Confronting Rising Sea Levels
Faced with rising sea levels caused by climate change, the MAP EMR Method, combined with manual planting of mangroves (when necessary, see the 6 Steps) should be an important tool for international relief organizations to incorporate into their mangrove restoration efforts.

Carbon Sequestration

Recent studies reveal that some mangroves sequester 1.5 metric tons of carbon per hectare (1,336 pounds per acre) per year. Yet, our planet is losing 150,000 hectares (370,050 acres) of mangroves yearly. The MAP EMR Method has the potential to restore our mangrove forests’ capacity to function as large-scale carbon sinks, mediating the prolonged effects of climate change.

6 Steps to Successful EMR

NEW: Mangrove Restoration Guide
EMR Workshops
EMR Discussion Group
MAP’s Illustrated Manual for Successful EMR
Recuperation of Abandoned Shrimp Farms
Research papers & References
EMR Practitioners

EMR Training Method

MAP EMR Training Method

Post-tsunami Mangrove Restoration

Mangrove restoration is just one aspect of integrated coastal zone management, but it is receiving increased attention in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami and the subsequent call for establishing protective greenbelts along tsunami affected coastlines (South Asia, SE Asia, and East Africa).

image_thumbThe need for mangrove restoration is extensive and financial and human resources for restoration must be put to best use and not wasted by inefficient or inappropriate restoration techniques.
MAP’s first EMR Method workshop took place in October 2003, pre-tsunami, in Sri Lanka as part of the In the Hands of the Fishers workshop series (IHOF 9).
Since the tsunami, MAP has been approached by numerous organizations from around the world interested in implementing long-term, effective mangrove restoration projects.
The best way for MAP to assist in the aftermath of the tsunami and with the rehabilitation process was to hold more restoration workshops in the region, emphasizing the MAP Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Method.
EMR Sri Lanka RobinPost-tsunami MAP EMR Method workshops have been held in India and Sri Lanka, serving as train-the trainers (TOT) events. Robin Lewis, MAP Board Member with over 30 years of experience in mangrove and sea grass restoration, led MAP EMR Method Workshops 2 and 3.

MAP EMR Method Workshop Objectives

  • Disseminate MAP EMR Method to leaders and educators
  • Participants return to their local organizations and areas to give condensed training of the MAP EMR Method to key stakeholders;
  • Following the local training, trainer and local stakeholders undertake a mangrove restoration pilot project to demonstrate the methodology;
  • Mangrove restoration pilot projects are monitored and evaluated by the trainer and stakeholders involved; and
  • Participants form an ecological restoration network for information exchange and technical support for further restoration projects.

MAP EMR Method Workshop Summaries & Reports

EMR Workshop Reports

MAP EMR Workshop Reports

EMR 1 (also IHOF 9)

Date: October 2003
Location: Chilaw, Sri Lanka
Participating Countries: India, Sri Lanka
Focus: MAP EMR Method & Building a Bay of Bengal Mangrove Network


Date: November 2005
Location: Vijayawada, Andhra Predash, India
Participating Countries: Sri Lanka, Myanmar , India
Focus: MAP EMR Method Technical Training


Date: February 2007
Location: NARA Center, Tangalla, Sri Lanka
Participating Countries: Sri Lanka
Focus: National MAP EMR Method Technical Training
Workshop Report (pdf 3.58) (combined with EMR 4 report)

EMR 4 (also IHOF 11)

Date: February 2007
Location: Arugam Bay, Ampara District, Sri Lanka
Participating Countries: Sri Lanka
Focus: Community-based MAP EMR Method Training
Workshop Report (pdf 3.58) (combined with EMR 3 report)

EMR 5 (also IHOF 12)

Date: July 2007
Location: Amaiteng Village, Simeulue Island, Aceh Province, Indonesia
Participating Countries: Indonesia (All Simeulue Islanders)
Focus: Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR), Sustainable Alternative Livelihoods
Workshop Report (pdf 4.9 MB)

EMR 6 (also IHOF 13)

Date: June 2009
Location: Kuala Gula, Malaysia
Participating Countries: Malaysia
Focus: Ecological Mangrove Restoration, Sustainable Livelihood Alternatives
Workshop Report (pdf 2.0 MB)

EMR 7 (also IHOF 14)

Date: December 12-13, 2009
Location: Ranong and Krabi, Thailand
Participating Countries: Thailand (from villages on North Andaman Sea Coast)
Focus: Community-based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Training
Workshop Report (pdf 773 KB)


Date: July 8, 2011
Location: San Salvador, El Salvador
Forum Report (pdf 678 KB)

EMR Illustrated Manuals

EMR Illustrated Manual

The MAP Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) Method was originally conceived as a 5-Step process. It was never presented as a static recipe, however, but as a dynamic process which sought input from restoration practitioners, especially from communities and local NGOs working on the ground. Through time, and with accumulated experience working in various regions of the tropics and sub-tropics, MAP has revised the methodology and today it is presented as a 6-Step process.

We welcome your suggestions and critique of the method and are providing our illustrated manual for download in order to better disseminate the concepts and invite your review (and corrections!).
Note that the manual was prepared with the original 5 Steps in mind. A second version (below) reflects the current 6-Step method . . . and your input.

Download MAP’s Illustrated Manual to Successful Ecological Restoration of Mangroves in English

5 EMR Steps in English (complete manual) (pdf 7 MB)

Illustrated Manual in Other Languages

5 EMR Steps in Tegulu (pdf 2,10 MB)
5 EMR Steps in Bahasa-Indonesia (pdf 6.38 MB)
5 EMR Steps in Thai (pdf 3.71 MB)
5 EMR Steps in Burmese (pdf 13.8 MB)
5 EMR Steps in Khmer (pdf 3.1 MB)

6 Steps to Successful EMR

Work together with local communities, NGOs and government to:

  1. Understand both the individual species and community ecology of the naturally occurring mangrove species at the site, paying particular attention to patterns of reproduction, distribution, and successful seedling establishment;
  2. Understand the normal hydrology that controls the distribution and successful establishment and growth of targeted mangrove species;
  3. Assess the modifications of the mangrove environment that occurred and that currently prevent natural secondary succession;
  4. Select appropriate restoration areas through application of Steps 1-3, above, that are both likely to succeed in rehabilitating a forest ecosystem and are cost effective. Consider the available labor to carry out the projects, including adequate monitoring of their progress toward meeting quantitative goals established prior to restoration. This step includes resolving land ownership/use issues necessary for ensuring long-term access to and conservation of the site;
  5. Design the restoration program at appropriate sites selected in Step 4, above, to restore the appropriate hydrology and utilize natural volunteer mangrove recruitment for natural plant establishment;
  6. Utilize actual planting of propagules or seedlings only after determining through Steps 1-5, above, that natural recruitment will not provide the quantity of successfully established seedlings, rate of stabilization, or rate of growth as required for project success.

Local communities plant propagules and/or seedlings even after having undertaken EMR for a combination of reasons:

  • Impatience;
  • Planted areas appear to outsiders (not aware of the project) as intentional actions and provide a measure of protection, as it is obvious that there is human activity in the area;
  • Promotion of growth of “preferred” species, such as Rhizophora spp., over early colonizers such as Avicennia spp. or Sonneratia spp;
  • To encourage and ensure local community participation in restoration efforts, as direct involvement may inspire better stewardship and a keener sense of project ownership by local communities; and
  • To earn income, as some NGOs and government agencies specifically budget funds for planting mangroves regardless of actual need at given project sites.

Summary sheets

MAP’s 6-Step EMR Method (pdf 90 KB)
MAP’s 6-Step EMR Method – Thai language (pdf 180 KB)


MAP’s 6-Step EMR Method Poster (in English) – 150 dpi (pdf 5 MB)
MAP’s 6-Step EMR Method Poster (in English) – 300 dpi (pdf 13.1 MB)
MAP’s 6-Step EMR Method Poster (in Spanish) / Poster en Español sobre el método en 6 pasos para Restauración Ecológica de Manglares
(tiff 1.97 MB)

EMR Discussion Group

EMR Discussion Group

An Ecological Mangrove Restoration (EMR) e-group was originally established to share information amongst mangrove restoration practitioners in the Bay of Bengal region. It was set-up in Nov 2005 following the MAP EMR Method Training Workshop (EMR 2) held in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The group is made up mainly of NGOs members from South Asia but the list has increased now to include other interested persons from a variety of backgrounds and regions with about 80 members in total. The EMR discussion group members share information on mangrove restoration and pose questions on problems encountered. The overall objective is share experience in order to improve the success of mangrove restoration by applying the principals of EMR.image_preview1
The EMR list is a closed group available by invitation only. If you would like to join the EMR e-group please send a request explaining your background and EMR interest to the group administrator or request an invitation via the Yahoo group website.
(Tale Nok Villagers in Ranong, Thailand use EMR method to restore an old shrimp pond back to mangroves.)