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Mangroves – General
Mangroves & Wetland Restoration
Mangrove Valuation & Economics
Mangrove Mapping & GIS
Fisheries Issues
Community-based Coastal Resource Management
Shrimp Aquaculture
Mangroves & Oil
Tsunamis & Hurricanes
Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

Mangroves – General

Friess, D. Mangroves. 2017. Oxford University Press.
An annotated bibliography of ~120 key and interesting mangrove papers. It covers all aspects of mangroves – fauna, flora, ecosystem services, productivity and nutrient cycling, threats, climate change, conservation and restoration – amongst others. There is also a mixture of classic papers and recent innovative articles.
(pdf, 23p, 6MB)

Asian Mangrove Chart. (page 1 pdf 4MB, page 2 pdf 6 MB)

Feller, I.C., and M.Sitnik (eds.). 1996. Mangrove Ecology:  A Manual for a Field Course. Smithsonian Institution.
(pdf, 145p, 1.47MB)

Gopal, B., and M. Chauhan. 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat. Sci. 68(3):338-354.
(pdf, 17p, 542KB)

Les marais à mangroves:  une introduction. 2005. IDEE Casamance.
(pdf, 19p, 542MB)

Melana, D.M. , Atchue,  J. III, Yao, C.E., Edwards, R., Melana, E.E. and H.I. Gonzales. 2000. Mangrove Management Handbook. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Manila, Philippines through the Coastal Resource Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines. 96 p.
(pdf, 118p, 3MB)

The Mangrove and Life Within
Animated illustration of the life processes within the mangrove ecosystem.
(html) Flash plug-in required

Mangrove Zone Ecology
You can access all the bibliographies for free until June 2014 at, username Gratisuser303, password Onlineaccess303. Enter the term “mangrove” in the search box and it should take you to our paper.

A Mosaic of Life
Peek into the underwater world of mangroves, “womb of the sea.”
By Liz Cunningham ~ Photos By Wes Matweyew and Liz Cunningham
(pdf 2.8 MB)

Chauhan, Rahul. 2008.  Survey of Avifauna of Borivali Mangroves Along the Cost of Mumbai. NATURE ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY”, Technoscience publication, Vol.7, Issue 2008. A check list of birds seen in Borivali mangroves.

Rabinowitz, Alan. Stop the Bleeding. Report on tiger conservation, noting that the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world is the Sundarbans of Bangladesh and India which is one of the last tiger strongholds, but degrading rapidly due to human pressures.
(pdf, 384 KB) 

Tropical Mangroves; Biologically Most Diverse ‘The Global 200’ Ecosystem: Megachiroptera as Key Ecological and Conservation Tool.  Ashraf M & Habjoka N (2013). (PDF 771K).

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Mangrove and Wetland Restoration

Listings and full copies of many important mangrove study papers can be found on the mangrove data base at

Brown, Benjamn. 2007. Resilience Thinking Applied to the Mangroves of Indonesia. IUCN & Mangrove Action Project. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(pdf, 54p, 3MB)

Check, E. 2005. Roots of Recovery. Nature 438:910-911.
(pdf, 2p, 597 KB)

Cunningham, S. 1998. A Raindrop Cleans the Wetlands. Changemakers Journal, Oct/98.
On the Yadfon Association’s efforts to restore mangrove forests in Thailand.

Duke, Norm. Restoration of Mangrove Plantations & Colonisation by Native Species. Mangrove Watch, Australia (pdf, 2.7 MB)

Lewis, R.R. III. 2005. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecol. Eng. 24(4 SI): 403-418.
(pdf, 16p, 555KB)

Lewis III, RR and B Brown.  2014.  Ecological mangrove rehabilitation – a field manual for practitioners. Mangrove Action Project, Canadian International Development Agency and OXFAM. (pdf, 275 p. 34MB)

Lewis, RR., and R.G. Gilmore. 2007. Important considerations to achieve successful mangrove forest restoration with optimum fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 80(3): 823–837.
(pdf, 16p, 406KB)

MAP-Indonesia. 2006. 5 Steps to Successful Ecological Restoration of Mangroves. Mangrove Action Project-Indonesia. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(pdf, 64p, 7MB) downloadable in sections

Pilz, D., Ballard, H. L., and E.T. Jones. 2006. Broadening participation in biological monitoring:  handbook for scientists and managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-680. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 131 p.

    Written for managers and scientists in the United States who are contemplating a participatory approach to monitoring biological resources, especially biodiversity. It is designed as a how-to manual with discussions of relevant topics, checklists of important considerations to address, and resources for further information.
(pdf 1.18 MB)

Pradeep, P R J, Buying Up Mangrove Forests to Conserve, Tip of India Blog.

Stevenson, N. J., Lewis, R.R. and P. R. Burbridge. 1999. Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Pages 277-297 In:  An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation, W. J. Streever (Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands. 338 pp.
(pdf, 21p, 1.85MB)

Trump, Katharina, and Udo Gattenlohner, eds. Mangrove Restoration Guide. Global Nature Fund, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. December, 2015.

Recent progresses in Mangrove conservation, restoration and research in China.
This paper highlights some key progresses in mangrove conservation, restoration and research in China during last two decades. Journal of Plant Ecology. vol. 2, no. 2, pages 45-54, June 2009. (PDF)

Van Cuong, C. and S. Brown. 2012. Coastal rehabilitation and mangrove restoration using malaeluca fences-practical experience from Kien Giang Province.  Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. (PDF, 3.1 MB)

Poster on ecological mangrove restoration (English) PDF 3.73 MB
Poster on ecological mangrove restoration (Bahasa Indonesia) PDF 3/37 MB
Ecological mangrove restoration (Bahasa Indonesia) PDF 753 KB
Post disaster rapid coastal assessment (Bahasa Indonesia) PDF 1.08 MB
Resilience thinking applied to the mangroves of Indonesia (English) PDF 2.93 MB
Policy brief: post disaster mangrove rehabilitation: Indonesia PDF 761 KB

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Mangrove Valuation and Economics

Badola, R., and S.A. Hussain. 2005. Valuing ecosystem functions: an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation 32 (1): 85–92.

(pdf, 8p, 164KB)

Barbier, Edward B.
His webpage contains links for downloading many of his recent publications on mangroves and economics. You can also access his papers on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN)

Barbier, Edward B., and Geoffrey M. Heal. 2006. Valuing Ecosystem Services. The Economists’ Voice Vol. 3(3), Article 2.
(pdf, 6p,139KB) guest registration necessary

Chong, J. (2005) Protective values of mangrove and coral ecosystems: A review of methods and evidence. IUCN. 7 January 2005.
(pdf, 5p, 208MB)

Christensen, B.1983. Mangroves: what are they worth? Unasylva139:2-15.

Corals and Mangroves in the Front Line. 2006. Economic Case for Conservation of Corals and Mangroves Made in New UN Environment Report.

(pdf, 36p, 1.1MB)

De Groot, R.S., Stuip, M.A.M., Finlayson, C.M. and Davidson, N. 2006. Valuing wet­lands: guidance for valuing the benefits derived from wetland ecosystem services. Ramsar Technical Report No. 3/CBD Technical Series No. 27. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada.
(pdf, 54p, 1.6MB)

Ranasinghe, R. and M. Kallesoe. 2006. Valuation, Rehabilitation and Conservation of Mangroves in Tsunami Affected Areas of Hambantota, Sri Lanka. IUCN. 36p.

(pdf, 917MB, 36p)

Sathirathai, S. and E. Barbier. 2001. Valuing Mangrove Conservation in Southern Thailand. Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol 19(2):109-122.
(pdf, 14p, 116MB)

UNEP-WCMC. 2006. In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 33 pp.
(pdf, 36p, 1MGB)

MAP. 2005. Mangrove Valuation Brochure. Mangrove Action Project. Port Angeles, Wash., USA.

(pdf, 2p, 1MB)

The Downside of Shrimp Farming in Southeast Asia. 2005. Panoramica Acuicola.(html)

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Mangrove Mapping & GIS

Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Van Hiel, E., Chan, J.C.-W. , Jayatissa, L.P. and N. Koedam, 2005. Qualitative distinction of congeneric and introgressive mangrove species in mixed patchy forest assemblages using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (IKONOS). Systematics and Biodiversity2(2): 113-119.
(pdf, 7p, 208KB)

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Fisheries Issues

Faunce C.H. and J.E. Serafy. 2006. Mangroves as fish habitat: 50 years of field studies. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 318:1–18.
(pdf, 18p, 753 KB)

International Legal Instruments Relevant to Fisheries and Fishing Communities.
    A handbook published in 2006 covers 114 legal instruments, categorized into the following 7 themes: Human Rights, Food Security, Women and Development; Environment and Sustainable Development; Oceans and Fisheries Management; Environmental Pollution; Fishing Vessels and Safety at Sea; Labor; and Trade.

    The companion CD-ROM provides the full texts of the instruments in a searchable database. The handbook will be useful for fishworker and NGOs, and also for researchers and others interested in fisheries issues.(html)

Manson, F. J., Loneragan, N.R., Skilleter, G.A. and S.R. Phinn. 2005. An evaluation of the evidence for linkages between mangroves and fisheries: A synthesis of the literature and identification of research directions. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, Vol. 43: 485-515.
(pdf, 32p, 1.4MB)

Mumby P.J., Edwards A.J., Arias-González J.E., Lindeman K.C., Blackwell P.G., Gall A., Gorczynska M.I., Harborne A.R., Pescod C.L., Renken H., Wabnitz C.C. and G. Llewellyn. 2004. Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427(6974): 533-6.
(pdf, 4p, 442KB)

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Baines, J. and Whittaker, M. April, 2016. Apiculture in or near mangroves: a natural winner for communities & mangroves. (pdf, 9p, 737KB)

Garland, L. 2003. Vertical soak diffusion for bamboo preservation. Environmental Bamboo Foundation. Bali, Indonesia.
(pdf, 15p, 1.1MB)

MAP-Indonesia. Bamboo Furniture Hand-crafted in Tiwoho Village. A marketing tool for community bamboo artisans in Sulawesi. Mangrove Action Project-Indonesia.

(pdf, 2p, 650KB)

MAP-Indonesia. 2006. Cooking with Mangroves. 36 Indonesian recipes using mangrove products as ingredients. Mangrove Action Project-Indonesia.
(pdf, 45p, 4MB)

Rahnema, Majid. Eradicating “Poverty” or the Poor?
(doc, 8p, 54KB)

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Community-based Coastal Resource Management

Kaewmahanin, J., Sukwong, S. and R.J. Fisher. 2005. Pred Nai Community Forest, Trad Province, Thailand. Case Study 1 in R.J. Fisher, S. Maginnis, W.J. Jackson, E. Barrow and S. Jeaanrenaud, Poverty and Conservation: Landscapes, People and Power. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN The World Conservation Union.

Participatory Coastal Resource Assessment
Handbook for Community Workers and Coastal Resource Managers; Training Guide
Lecture Aids; Mangrove Management Handbook

Quarto, A. 2003. Local Thai Communities Rescue the Sea and Themselves by Protecting Mangroves. National Wetlands Newsletter, Vol. 25 (1):5.
(pdf, 4p, 458 KB)

Charnsnoh, P. Yadfon Association’s Experience in Conservation of Coastal Wetland Ecosystems Through Promotion of Community Based Management in Trang Province, Thailand. Yadfon (Raindrop) Association, Thailand.
(doc, 6p, 63KB)

Sudtongkong, Chanyut. and Webb, Edward L., 2008. Outcomes of State- vs. Community-Based Mangrove Management in Southern Thailand, Ecology and Society 13(2): 27
(pdf, 23 p, 214 KB)

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Shrimp Aquaculture

Ahmed, F. 1997. In Defense of Land and Livelihood, Community Resistance to the Shrimp Industry in Asia. CUSO, Inter Pares, Sierra Club of Canada, and the Consumers’ Association of Penang.
(pdf, 38p, 1.14MB)

Barnhizer, D. 2001. The Trade, Environment and Human Rights: The Paradigm Case of Industrial Aquaculture and the Exploitation of Traditional Communities. Ashgate Publishing Company.

Center for Food Safety. 2005. The Catch with Seafood. Human Health Impacts of Drugs & Chemicals Used by the Aquaculture Industry. Washington, D.C.
(pdf, 44p, 4MB)

Certificando la Destrucción – Análisis integral de la certificación orgánica a la acuacultura industrial de camarón en Ecuador (Certifying Destruction – Integral analysis of organic certification of industrial shrimp aquaculture in Ecuador)

Critical Outsiders Alliance on the ASC Shrimp Standard. (pdf 450KB)

Declaration of concern on shrimp aquaculture certification. 2006.
Representatives of community-based organizations and NGOs from the tropical coastal zone of America, Asia, and Africa and other NGO’s participating in the “Shrimp Farming Certification Meeting,” Bangkok, Thailand. September 2006.
(pdf, 2p, 111 MB)

Dickhoff, W.W., Collier, T.K., and U. Varanasi. 2007. The seafood dilemma – a way forward. Fisheries 32(5): 244-246. (May 2007)
(pdf, 3p, 414MB)

EJF. 2003. Smash and Grab. Conflict, corruption and human rights abuses in the shrimp farming industry. Environmental Justice Foundation, London, UK.
(pdf, 36p, 2.4MB)

EJF. 2004. Farming The Sea, Costing The Earth: Why We Must Green The Blue Revolution. Environmental Justice Foundation, London, UK.

(pdf, 80p, 4.12MB)

FAO/NACA/UNEP/WB/WWF. 2006. International Principles for Responsible
Shrimp Farming.
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA).
Bangkok, Thailand. 20 pp.
(pdf, 26p, 1.4MB)

Food & Water Watch reports on farmed shrimp. 2004-2006 Chemical Cocktail; Shell Game; Shrimp’s Passport; Shrimp Stockpile; Fishy Currency; Suspicious Shrimp; Import Alert.


Graslund S., Holmstrom K. and A. Wahlstrom. 2003. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46(1): 81-90.
(pdf, 10p, 126MB)

Luciana de Souza Queiroz. 2014. Industrial Shrimp Aquaculture and Mangrove Ecosystems: A multidimensional analysis of a socio‐environmental conflict in Brazil. PhD Thesis.
(pdf, 18MB)

Kelly, S. 2012. Succumbing to Shrimp. E Magazine pp 32-33. (pdf, 900KB).

Lampung Declaration Against Industrial Shrimp Aquaculture. Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia, 6 September 2007.(html)

Lebel, L. Nguyen, H. T., Saengnoree, A., Pasong, S., Buatama, U. and Le Kim Thoa. 2002.Industrial Transformation and Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: Pathways to Ecological, Social, and Economic Sustainability? Ambio 31(4).
(pdf, 13p, 311KB)

Letter of Fortaleza. 2006.
Declaration by Brazilian fisherfolk representatives at seminar ‘Mangroves and Community Life: the socio-environmental impacts of shrimp farming,’ Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, August 2006.
(pdf, 4p, 118 KB)

Lewis, R.R. III, Phillips, M.J., Clough, B. and D.J. Macintosh. 2003. Thematic Review on Coastal Wetland Habitats and Shrimp Aquaculture. Report prepared under the World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. Work in Progress for Public Discussion. Published by the Consortium. 81 p.
(pdf, 7p, 630kb)

Naylor, R.L., Goldburg, R.J., Primavera, J.H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M.C.M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H. and M. Troel. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405: 1017-1024

Primavera, J.H. 2006. Overcoming the impacts of aquaculture on the coastal zone. Ocean & Coastal Management Vol. 49(9-10): 531-545.
(pdf, 15p, 407KB)

Quarto, A. 1998. The Rise and Fall of the Blue Revolution. SWARA, magazine of the East Africa Wildlife Society, Oct-Dec 1998, pp.16-21.

Quarto, A., Cissna, K. and J. Taylor. 1996. Choosing the Road to Sustainability: the Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture and the Models for Change. Submitted for the International Live Aquatics ’96 Conference, Seattle, Washington. October 13-15, 1996.
(pdf, 16p, 71KB)

Redmanglar Statement on Certification. 2003. Bahia de Caraquez, Ecuador, 5 November 2003.
On plans to expand the shrimp farming industry in the countries where Redmanglar works.
(pdf, 2p, 47KB)

Rönnbäck, Patrik. 2002.  Environmentally Sustainable Shrimp Aquaculture.  Prepared for the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation.  March 2002.
(pdf, 25 p, 312.3 KB)

Rönnbäck, Patrik. 2001.  Shrimp Aquaculture: State of the Art. SwedishEIA Centre, Report 1. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
(pdf, 58p, 282 KB)

Rome Declaration on Shrimp Farming. 2007. 27th Session of the Committee on Fisheries of UN Food and Agriculture Organization (COFI-FAO), Rome, Italy. March 2007.
(pdf, 2p, 308 MB)

Schaeffer-Novelli, Y., Cintrón-Molero, G. and C. Coelho Jr. 2006. Managing shorebird flyways: shrimp aquaculture, shorebird populations and flyway integrity. Pages 812-816 In: Waterbirds around the world.(Eds.) G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 812-816.
(pdf, 7p, 735MB)

Meireles, J. 2006. Shrimp farming: socio-environmental disaster in Northeast Brazilian mangrove ecosystems. Forum in Defense of the Coastal Zone of Ceara (FDZCC), Brazil, November 2006.
(pdf, 3p, 22 KB)

Statement of Fortaleza. 2004.
Issued by delegates attending II General Assembly of Redmanglar Internacional. Fortaleza, Brazil. September 2004.
(pdf, 2p, 21KB)

Vandergeest, Peter, Unno, Anusorn 2012. A new Extraterritoriality? Aquaculture Certification, Sovereignty, and Empire. Elsevier Political Geography (2012), doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2012.05.005.
(pdf, pp 10, 250k)

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Mangroves and Oil

Hoff, R. (ed.) 2002. Oil Spills in Mangrove. Planning and Response Considerations.

(pdf, 72p, 3.4MB)
Shell’s Shell in Ogoniland: Killing the Environment and Impoverishing the People. 2004. Niger Delta Project for Environment, Human Rights and Development (NDPEHRD).
(doc, 8p, 952KB)

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Cherry, Lynne. 2004. The Sea, The Storm and the Mangrove Tangle. Farrar Straus Giroux. New York.


ELAW Mangrove Science Database.
A global resource for lawyers and other professionals who are interested in the value of mangroves and their conservation.

Global Mangrove Overview. Chapter 3 of 2007 FAO report on mangrove forest cover and loss.

MAP-Indonesia. 2004. Do Your Own Mangrove Action Project. An action research problem solving curriculum for coastal communities. Mangrove Action Project – Indonesia. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(pdf, 42p, 2.7MB)

Mangrove Coloring Book. Printable B&W handouts used with permission by JICA.
(pdf, 8p, 2.2MB)

Buranakul, Sophia. 2009. Our Lives by the Sea. A celebration of the life and work of Sophia Buranakul.

Smithsonian Virtual Tour of Mangroves
Explore the ecology of mangroves in this online tour. You’ll visit dwarf forests, discover snails without shells and learn about the threats facing mangroves around the world. (link)


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Responsible Ecological Social Tours Project (REST). Community-based Tourism Handbook.(html)

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Tsunamis and Hurricanes

Coastal protection in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami: What role for forests and trees? Proceedings of an FAO Regional Technical Workshop, Khao Lak, Thailand, 28-31 August 2006. FAO, Bangkok.

Danielsen, F., Sorensen, M.K., Olwig, M.F., Selvam, V., Parish, F., Burgess, N.D., Hiralshi, T., Karunagaran, V.M., Rasmussen, M.S., Hansen, L.B., Quarto, A. & N. Suryadiputra. 2005. The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310, 643.
(pdf, 1p, 114MB)

EJF. 2006. Mangroves:  Nature’s Defence Against Tsunamis. A report on the impact of mangrove loss and shrimp farm development on coastal defences. Environmental Justice Foundation, Lonkon, UK.
(pdf, 32p, 7.1MB)

Lewis, R.R. 2005. Mangroves, hurricanes and tsunamis. All About Wetlands 1(3): 3-5+10.
(pdf, 5p, 1MB)

Reduction of Wind and Swell Waves by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection, (html)

Stone, R. 2006. The day the land tipped over. Science 314: 406-409.
(pdf, 4p, 884KB)

Tourism Concern. 2005. Post-tsunami reconstruction and tourism: a second disaster?
(pdf, 37p, 34KB)

Wolanski, E., 2007. Synthesis of the protective functions of coastal forests and trees against natural hazards. In: Coastal protection in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami: What role for forests and trees? Proceedings of an FAO Regional Technical Workshop, Khao Lak, Thailand, 28-31 August 2006. FAO, Bangkok.
(pdf, 24p, 1MB)

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Climate Change & Sea Level Rise

Biliana Cicin-Sain, Ed. Oceans and Climate Change: Issues and recommendations for policymakers and for the climate negotiations, Global Form on Oceans, Coasts and Islands, 2009. (pdf, 196p, 1.9 MB)

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning for Mangrove Systems, published by WWF-US in April 2012. Drawing on pilot activities in Cameroon, Tanzania, and Fiji under the GEF-funded “Coastal Resilience to Climate Change” project, WWF has developed a methodology that can be used worldwide for assessing the vulnerability of mangrove ecosystems to the impacts of climate change (particularly sea level rise) and for developing adaptation strategies. This manual brings together a wealth of on-the-ground experience and scientific knowledge to help conservation practitioners, protected area managers and other stakeholders who are responsible for protecting and managing the world’s mangrove forests in a changing climate.

Donato, Daniel C. Mangroves Among the Most Carbon-rich Forests in the Tropics. Nature Geoscience 3 April 2011. (pdf, 5 p, 885 k)

Gilman, E. (ed.) 2006. Proceedings of the Symposium on Mangrove Responses to Relative Sea-Level Rise and Other Climate Change Effects, 13 July 2006. Catchments to Coast. The Society of Wetland Scientists 27th International Conference, 9-14 July 2006, Cairns Convention Centre, Cairns, Australia. Published by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, Honolulu, USA.
(pdf, 85p, 2.24MB)

Gilman, E.H., Ellison, J., and Coleman, R. 2007. Assessment of Mangrove Response to Projected Relative Sea-Level Rise and Recent Historical Reconstruction of Shoreline Position. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 124 (1-3): 105-130.
(pdf, 26p, 1.5MB)

Gilman, E. H., Elison, J., Duke, N. C., and Field, C. 2008. Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options. Aquatic Botany 89(2):237-250. (pdf, 14p, 209 KB)

Gilman, E.H., Ellison, J., Jungblut, V., Van Lavieren, H., Wilson, L., Areki, F., Brighouse, G., Bungitak, J., Dus, E., Henry, M., Kilman, M., Matthews, E., Sauni, I. Jr., Teariki-Ruatu, N., Tukia, S., and K. Yuknavage. 2006. Adapting to Pacific Island mangrove responses to sea level rise and climate change. Climate Research, 32(3): 161-176.
(pdf, 16p, 700KB)

Gilman, E., Van Lavieren, H., Ellison, J., Jungblut, V., Wilson, L., Areki, F., Brighouse, G., Bungitak, J., Dus, E., Henry, M., Sauni, I. Jr., Kilman, M., Matthews, E., Teariki-Ruatu, N., Tukia, S. and K. Yuknavage. 2006. Pacific Island Mangroves in a Changing Climate and Rising Sea. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 179. United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Seas Programme, Nairobi, KENYA.
(pdf, 70p, 2.5KB)

Kiribati In Danger. Powerpoint presentation created by Rock Lee, a 5th grader, about climate change.

Mangrove Forests Critical to Mitigate Effects of Sea Level Rise. Podcast interview with Alfredo Quarto

McLeod, E. and R.V. Salm. 2006. Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change.IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 64p.
(pdf, 66p, 1.8 MB)

Ong, J. E. 2002. The Hidden Costs of Mangrove Services: Use of Mangroves for Shrimp Aquaculture. International Science Roundtable for the Media – 4 June 2002. Bali, Indonesia. Joint event of ICSU, IGBP, IHDP, WCRP, DIVERSITAS, START.
(pdf, 3p, 19KB)

Ong J. E. 1993. Mangroves – A Carbon Source and Sink. Chemosphere 27(6): 1097-1107.
(pdf, 11p, 406MB)

Snedaker, S. C. 1993. Impact on mangroves. Pages 282-305, In: G.A. Maul (ed.) Climatic Change in the Intra-Americas Sea, Edward Arnold, Hodder and Sloughton Publishers, Kent, UK, 389 p.
(pdf, 28p, 1.3MB)

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